Water is the most important natural resource on planet earth because it is the essence of all life. Two thirds of the earth's surface is water. In fact, about 60-70 percent of the components of the human body consist of water.
Water is everywhere. The amount of water on earth is constant, water only changes shape and goes through a cycle called the water cycle. The water cycle is a natural, sustainable process in nature. The water cycle is a pattern in which water in oceans, seas, lakes and others evaporates and turns into steam. After going through a process of condensation and precipitation, water falls back to the earth as rain, including snow.
From this cycle, there is clean water (potable water) which is considered safe enough for human and animal consumption. Clean water is water that is usually used for drinking, cooking, washing, crop irrigation and others. However, there are serious problems that threaten the existence of water on earth, namely water pollution or water pollution.
Water is prone to pollution. Water is known as a universal solvent because it is able to dissolve more substances than any other liquid on earth. That's why water is so easily contaminated.
Water pollution is pollution of water bodies (such as oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, groundwater and others) which is usually caused by human activities. Changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water will have detrimental consequences for living organisms.
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, water pollution is the release of substances into groundwater below the surface or into lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries and oceans to the point where the substances interfere with the beneficial use of water or the natural functions of the ecosystem.
Quoted from the Natural Resources Defense Council, water pollution is when hazardous substances (chemicals or microorganisms) pollute streams, rivers, lakes, oceans or other water bodies thereby reducing water quality and becoming toxic to humans and the environment.
Water pollution causes a fresh water crisis, threatening drinking water sources and other essential needs for humans and other living things.
With this water pollution, it requires many people to purify their water before it is consumed or used for daily needs by making water purifiers.
A simple water purifier commonly sold in the market is usually made to purify water which is still classified as normal water even though it contains a little other compounds. Not cloudy water, brackish water, or salt water.
If you want to purify or purify water like that, you definitely need a special, more sophisticated tool. Because this activity means wanting to recycle water. Recycling water is not easy. It takes professionals to do it.
Apart from buying water purifiers on the market, we can also make our own with simple materials and tools that we can find around us. Here's how to make a simple water purifier.
How To Make A Simple Water Purifier
To make a simple water purifier, a few simple ingredients are required :
- 2 used drums / buckets (1 for sediment and 1 for filters).
- 2 water faucets / paralon pipes with a diameter of 0.5 inches with a length of 35 cm.
- Precipitation material: River stone.
- Filter material: fibers, fine sand, coconut shell charcoal / wood charcoal, gravel and stones.
- Knife / cutter.
- Wood / plastic / the like for manhole covers.
- Tape / adhesive to help fix the faucet to make it stronger.
How to make:
- Wash all sediment and filter material, including drums / buckets that will be used.
- Measure the size of the faucet / pipe on both drums with a distance of 10 cm from the bottom of the drum, then mark it with a marker.
- Make a hole in the marked settling and filtering drum. For settling drum, make another hole at the bottom of the drum with a lid to remove sediment from the outside (wooden / plastic / similar cover).
- Install the faucet / pipe in the drum hole. Use insulation so that the faucet / pipe is strong and tight.
- Fill the settling drum with river stones.
- Fill the filter drum successively with 15 cm palm fiber, 15 cm fine sand, 20 cm more palm fiber, 10 cm fine sand, 15 cm coconut shell charcoal, 10 cm gravel, 15 cm stone.
- Place the sediment and filter drums incrementally or sequentially.
- Put water in the settling drum and leave it for 30-40 minutes.
- Set the faucet to medium / small size so that the water that comes out does not make it cloudy if there is sediment.
- After the water is allowed to stand, then open the faucet so that it flows into the filter drum.
- Place any sump / container directly under the filter bottle.